Chapter 1


Investigation 1-1: Kreiss, K. et al (2002), “Clinical Bronchiolitis Obliterans in Workers at a Microwave-Popcorn Plant,” New England Journal of Medicine, 347(5): 330-338.


Investigation 1-2: Wynder, E. and Graham, E. (1950), “Tobacco Smoking as a Possible Etiologic Factor in Bronchiogenic Cancer,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 143(4): 329-338.


Investigation 1-3:  
Hammond, E.C. and Horn, D. (1954), “The relationship between human smoking habits and death rates:  a follow-up study of 187,766 men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 155: 1316-1328.
Hammond, E.C. and Horn, D. (1958), “Smoking and Death Rates – Report on 55 Months of Follow-up of 187,766 men,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 166: 1159, 1294-1308.
Practice Problem 1-5:  Tolan, S. (2000), “Me and Hank: A Boy and His Hero, Twenty-five Years Later,” Free Press.
Practice Problem 1-6: Widom, C. S. (1989), “The Cycle of Violence,” Science, 244: 160 as found in F. Ramsey and D. Schafer (2002), The Statistical Sleuth: A Course in Methods of Data Analysis, 2nd edition, Duxbury.
Practice Problem 1-7: Dawson, R. (1995), “The ‘Unusual Episode’ Revisited,” Journal of Statistics Education, 3(3):
Investigation 1-4:  Quinn, G.E., Shin, C.H., Maguire, M.G. and Stone, R.A. (1999), “Myopia and ambient lighting at night,” Nature, 399:113-114.
Investigation 1-5: Bickel, P. J., Hammel, E. A., and O’Connell, J. W. (1975), “Sex bias in graduate admissions: Data from Berkeley,” Science, 187, 398–403. 
Practice Problem 1-10: Charig C.R., Webb D.R., Payne S.R., Wickham O.E. (1986), “Comparison of treatment of renal calculi by operative surgery, percutaneous nephrolithotomy, and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy,” British Medical Journal 292:879-82, as reported in Julious, S. A., and Mullee, M.A. (1994), “Confounding and Simpson’s Paradox,” British Medical Journal, 309: 1480-1481.
Practice Problem 1-12: Cohen, S., Doyle, W. J., Turner, R.B., Alper, C. M., and Skoner, D. P. (2003), “Emotional Style and Susceptibility to the Common cold,” Psychosomatic Medicine, 65: 652-657.
Practice Problem 1-16: North, A., Shilcock, A., and Hargreaves, D. J. (2003), “The effect of musical style of restaurant customers’ spending,” Environment and Behavior, 35(5): 712-8.

Investigation 1-9: Butler, J. L., and Baumeister, R. F. (1998), “The trouble with friendly faces: Skilled performance with a supportive audience,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75: 1213-1230.

Practice Problem 1-19: Foster, L., Clapp, I., Erickson, M. et al, (2001), “Botulinum toxin A and chronic lower back pain,” Neurology, 56(10):1290-3.
Practice Problem 1-23: Rosen, B., and Jerdee, T. (1974), “Influence of sex role stereotypes on personnel decisions,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 59, 9-14.
Chapter 2
Investigation 2-1:  Simpson, J., Olsen, A., and Eden, J. (1975), “A Bayesian analysis of a multiplicative treatment effect in weather modification,” Technometrics, 17:161-166.
Investigation 2-3: Weisberg, S. (1985), Applied Linear Regression, Wiley.
Investigation 2-5:
Mackowiak, P. A., Wasserman, S. S., and Levine, M. M. (1992), “A Critical Appraisal of 98.6 Degrees F, the Upper Limit of the Normal Body Temperature, and Other Legacies of Carl Reinhold August Wunderlich,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 268: 1578-1580.
Shoemaker, A. (1996), “What’s Normal?  - Temperature, Gender, and Heart Rate,” Journal of Statistics Education, 4(2):
Investigation 2-8: Stickgold, R., James, L., & Hobson, J.A. (2000), “Visual discrimination learning requires post-training sleep,” Nature Neuroscience, 2:1237-1238.

Investigation 2-10: The 1991 World Almanac and Book of Facts, pp. 336-374.


Chapter 3


Practice Problem 3-12: Plotkin, W., Komornick, A. (2001), Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Accidents in the Boston Metropolitan Region, Metropolitan Area Planning Council: Boston, MA.


Investigation 3-7: Roy, M. M. and Christenfeld, N.J.S. (2004), “Do Dogs Resemble Their Owners?” Psychological Science, 15(5): 361.


Investigation 3-9: Riggs, M. (2002), “Appendix C: Statistical Considerations for Data Quality Objectives and Data Quality Assessments in Water Quality Attainment Studies,” in Consolidated Assessment and Listing Methodology, Toward a Compendium of Best Practices, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Wetlands, Oceans, and Watersheds, July 2002.


Investigation 3-10: Poloniecki, J., Sismanidis, C., Bland, M., Jones, P. (2004), “Retrospective cohort study of false alarm rates associated with a series of heart operations: the case for hospital mortality monitoring groups,” British Medical Journal, 328: 375-359.


Investigation 3-12: Schwartz, M.B., Chen, E.Y., & Brownell, K.B. (2003), “Trick, treat, or toy: Children are just as likely to choose toys as candy on Halloween,” Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 35: 207-209.


Investigation 3-13: Gu:ntu:rku:n, O. (2003), “Human Behavior: Adult Persistence of Head-Turning Asymmetry,” Nature, 421: 771.


Practice Problem 3-20: Hai, D., Khairulaah, Z., and Coulmas, N.  (1982), “Sex and the single armrest: Use of personal space during air travel,”  Psychological Reports, 51: 743-749.


Investigation 3-18: Schecter, A., Hoang, T.Q., Pavuk, M. et al, (2003), “Food as a Source of Dioxin Exposure in the Residents of Bien Hoa City, Vietnam,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 45(8), 781-788.


Practice Problem 3-31: Suddath, R.L., Christison, G.W., Torrey, E.F., Casanova, M.F., and Weinberger, D.R. (1990), “Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia,” New England Journal of Medicine, 322(12), 789-794.


Chapter 4


Investigation 4-1: For the misc.mtw data, the scores on a college placement exam scores are from a 1992 exam administered by the Dickinson College Department of Mathematics and Computer Science. The data on fuel capacities are from Consumer Reports 1999 New Car Buying Guide.  The Arby’s sandwich data from Arby’s “Comprehensive Guide of quality Ingredients” obtained in November, 1999.  All  can also be found in Workshop Statistics.  The maximum head breadths (in millimeters) on 84 skulls of Etruscan males, measured by anthropologists studying whether Estruscans were native Italians or had immigrated, was taken from The Handbook of Small Datasets (Hand, Daly, Lunn, McConway, and Ostrowski, 1994, Chapman and Hall).  The chest circumference (in inches, to the nearest inch) of 1000 Scottish soldiers, measured by Belgian mathematician Quetelet who sought to apply mathematical models to physical data and were published in Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, 1817.  It has been cited as the first application of the Normal distribution to human data and can also be found in The Handbook of Small Datasets.   The heights of elderly females (in centimeters), randomly selected from a community in a study of osteoporosis, can as well.  Students’ guesses of an instructor’s age are self-collected data form Beth Chance.


Investigation 4-2: Heinz, G., Peterson, L. J., Johnson, R. W., and Kerk C. J. (2003), “Exploring Relationships in Body Dimensions,” Journal of Statistics Education, 11(2).


Investigation 4-7: A webpage on the lawsuit can be found here.


Practice Problem 4-19: An updated set of data from Harris Poll can be found here.


Practice Problem  4-21: A nice reference on the poll and Gallup’s alternative strategies can be found here.


Investigation 4-12: The data on the mothers’ ages was taken from the 1998 General Social Survey conducted by the National Opinion Research Center and was found in Workshop Statistics.


Practice Problem  4-24: Suddath, R. L., Christison, G.W., Torrey, E. F., Casanova, M.F., and Weinberger, D.R. (1990), “Anatomical abnormalities in the brains of monozygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia,” New England Journal of Medicine, 322(12): 789-94 and also reported in The Statistical Sleuth.


Investigation 4-17: Caplehorn, J., and Bell, J. (1991), “Methadone dosage and the retention of patients in maintenance treatment,” The Medical Journal of Australia, 154: 198-9 as reported by S. Rabe-Hasketh and B. Everitt in A Handbook of Statistical Analyses using Stata, 2nd edition, Chapman & Hall: New York.


Practice 4-27: The data were obtained from The Handbook of Small Datasets (Hand, Daly, Lunn, McConway, and Ostrowski, 1994, Chapman and Hall.


Chapter 5


Investigation 5-1: “News Media’s Improved Image Proves Short-Lived.” Released August 4, 2002 by the Pew Research Center for the People and the Press.  See Questionnaire.


Practice Problem 5-1: Special Report California Recall Exit Polls for Governor.


Investigation 5-3: Connor, J., Norton, R., Ameratunga,  S., Robinson, E., Civil, I., Dunn, R., Bailey, J. and Jackson, R. (2002), “Driver sleepiness and risk of serious injury to car occupants: population based case control study,” British Medical Journal, 324: 1125.


Investigation 5-4: Goss, et al., (2003), “A Randomized Trial of Letrozole in Postmenopausal Women after Five Years of Tamoxifen Therapy for Early-Stage Breast Cancer,” New England Journal of Medicine, 349(19).


Practice Problem 5-7: The data are reported in the March 7, 1994 issue of Newsweek as reported in Workshop Statistics.


Investigation 5-5: Data was collected by David Dupree of USA Today and posted on


Investigation 5-6: Coren, S. & Halpern, D. F. (1991) “Left-handedness: a marker for decreased survival fitness,” Psychological Bulletin, 109.


Practice Problem 5-10: Noroozian, M., Lotfi, J., Ghassemzadeh, H., Emami, H., and Mehrabi, Y. (2002), “Academic achievement and learning abilities in left-handers: Guilt or Gift?,Cortex, 38: 779-85.


Practice Problem 5-14: Foster, et al., (2003), “A Randomized Trial of a Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Obesity,” New England Journal of Medicine, 348: 2082-2090.


Investigation 5-9: Crowley, J. and Hu, M.(1977), “Covariance Analysis of heart transplant survival data,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, 78: 277-81.


Chapter 6


Investigation 6-1: There are numerous references for the Spock Trials, including Zeisel, H., "Dr. Spock and the Case of the Vanishing Women Jurors," University of Chicago Law Review, 37, 1969, 1-18.  Ziesel, H. and Kalven, H. () “Parking Tickets and Missing Women: Statistics and the Law,” Statistics: A Guide to the Unknown, 2nd edition. Sommerfeld, J. T. (2002), “The Binomial and Hypergeometric Probability Distributions in Jury Selection,” Teaching Statistics, 24(2): 38.


Practice Problem 6-2: The source of the data is the Study No. 6047 (National Health Interview Survey, 1988: Occupational Health Supplement )


Investigation 6-4: Cesare, S.J., Tannenbaum, R.J., and Dalessio, A. (1990) “Interviewers’ Decisions Related to Applicant Handicap Type and Rater Empathy,” Human Performance 3(3): 157-71.


Practice Problem 6-6: Additional Walmart data can be found here.


Investigation 6-9: Wloszczyna, S and DeBarros, A. (2004), “Movie critics, fans follow surprisingly similar script,” USA Today, Posted 2/25/2004.  The database may still be here.


Practice Problem 6-9: Agresti, A. and Presnell, B. (2002), “Misvotes, Undervotes, and Overvotes: The 2000 Presidential Election in Florida,” Statistical Science, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1-5.


Practice Problem 6-12: The data are from The 1993 World Almanac and Book of Facts, p. 727-817, as reported in Workshop Statistics.


Minitab Exploration: 2000 British Open scores should be available here.